/Filter /FlateDecode Only an authenticated user can view this page. It is also used in various application sensors such as pressure sensors, current sensors, etc… A hall effect sensor is a sensor that varies its output based on the presence or absence of a magnetic field. -0.3 T, no consistent effect of a significant magnitude was observed during 13 series of observations of 40 readings each made between 7-1 1 October 1879. Centre for Experimental Physics Education (CEPE), International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) 2019, International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) 2018, International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) 2016, The Scientific Mind Through the Eyes of a Physics Experimenter, National University of Technology (NUTECH) 2019, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Science & Technology 2016, Principles of Electronic Materials and Device. A current Iis arranged to flow through the strip from left to right, and the voltage difference between the top and bottom is measured. The fundamental quantum of Hall resistance is h/e2 =25,813Ω. The doped Germanium samples are used to measure the Hall-voltage as a function of the sample current, the magnetic flux density and the sample temperature. This experiment introduces students to the Hall Effect which is a fundamental principle of magnetic field sensing. However, this information can be obtained from Hall Coefficient measurements, which are also basic tools for the determination of the followings. 1. Keep the range switch of the gaussmeter in minimum range and adjust the zero adjustment such that the reading in the gaussmeter shows zero. This is the position when direction of current in the probe and magnetic field The marking should be as 0 mm at null position, (where the head of the Hall Effect sensor is there) and with the intervals of 20 mm. Additional sources of documentation may need to be researched and consulted during … Introduction The Hall effect describes the behavior of the free carriers in a semiconductor when applying an electric as well as a magnetic field. Self Evaluation . Amit Puthran, UMKC, amit_puthran@yahoo.com; Hello, I recently performed an experiment that involved the Hall Effect. The average values calculated for the conductivity σ and carrier mobility µ were 740±70Sm−1and 0.84±0.10m2V−1s respectively. Reading Question 28.19 When the current in a Hall effect experiment is first turned on, which describes the electric and magnetic fields? This experiment introduces students to the Hall Effect which is a fundamental principle of magnetic field sensing. R Fig.1: Experiment set-up for Hall Effect Measurements. The Hall coefficient obtained may be used to determine the density of the charge carriers, and may be combined with the measured resistivity to determine the mobility of these carriers. 3.Last day of the experiment please ll out the Experiment Evaluation Suggested Reading: 1.Melissinos, Adrian. 54792, Pakistan. The Hall Effect The Hall effect was first observed by an American scientist, E.H.Hall, in 1879. A hall effect sensor is a sensor that varies its output based on the presence or absence of a magnetic field. It is illustrated in Fig. The latter technique utilizing the Hall effect has the advantage of requiring only a very small probe and very simple instrumentation. Simulator . This is the famous Quantum Hall Effect4. The Hall effect is due to the nature of the current in a conductor. Earlier in the year there had been some evidence of an increase in resistance but this was of such a nature that Hall had suspected some kind of thermal effect. The Hall Effect set up provides all operating parameters for the samples and displays the Hall voltage, sample current as well as the sample temperature. The physical mechanism of the Hall effect is discussed in Appendix I. Hall Effect was discovered by Edwin Herbert Hall in 1879. 3 0 obj << >> 14.1 Resistivity and the van der Pauw Method To determine the electrical … After fixing the Hall Effect sensor, mark the board with scaled numeric values with the help of marker and scale. At equilibrium, a voltage appears at the semiconductor edges. It directly determines both the sign and density of charge carriers in a … The parts I used are: A3144 Hall Effect Sensor - $2.49 (10 pcs.) 3. Lesson Plan – Hall Effect – Patterson The ΔQ term depends on the sign of the charge. Academic Press (1966). 2. Hall Effect Sensors consist basically of a thin piece of rectangular p-type semiconductor material such as gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium antimonide (InSb) or indium arsenide (InAs) passing a continuous current through itself. The Hall Effect Principle has been named after an American physicist Edwin H. Hall (1855–1938). Hall effect BY :HEBA BAKRY 2. 2) Measurement of applied magnetic field (B y) by using Hall effect (Application of Hall effect) Measurement of Hall coefficient (R H) In the 1st part give the power supply to the gaussmeter. The latter technique utilizing the Hall effect has the advantage of requiring only a very small probe and very simple instrumentation. 166-167. 4. The Hall Effect 1 Background In this experiment, the Hall Effect will be used to study some of the physics of charge transport in metal and semiconductor samples. The electric potential difierence between the two sides of the conductor is known as the Hall volt-age VH. %PDF-1.4 20.1. Magnetic sensors convert magnetic or magnetically encoded information into electrical signals for processing by electronic circuits, and in the Sensors and Transducers tutorials we looked at inductive proximity sensors and the LDVT as well as solenoid and relay output actuators. In solid state physics, Hall effect is an important tool to characterize the materials especially semiconductors. Keep the range switch of the gaussmeter in minimum range and adjust the zero adjustment such that the reading in the gaussmeter shows zero. Constant magnetic … Also calculate the Hall mobility mH and the carrier density n. 5. If the gaussmeter does not come to zero, then keep its value at minimum 2) Measurement of applied magnetic field (B y) by using Hall effect (Application of Hall effect) Measurement of Hall coefficient (R H) In the 1st part give the power supply to the gaussmeter. Current consists of the movement of many small charge carriers, typically electrons, holes, ions or all three. One important characterization tool in the measurement of the Hall effect to measure mobilities and carrier concentrations in a given semiconductor material. readings eliminates the influence of the other effects. Hall Effect Principle explains the behavior of charge carriers when it is exposed to electricity and magnetic fields. We will look at this in classical terms; again we will encounter a fundamental problem. Der Righi-Leduc-Effekt, auch Thermischer Hall-Effekt (engl. This phenomenon is called Hall Effect. It was proposed by Edwin Hall in the year 1879. Hall effect sensors can be applied in many types of sensing devices. The experimental setup shown inFigure 2.7.7, depicts a semiconductor bar with a rectangular cross section … Der Hall-Effekt ['hɔːl-], benannt nach Edwin Hall, beschreibt das Auftreten einer elektrischen Spannung in einem stromdurchflossenen Leiter, der sich in einem stationären Magnetfeld befindet. This means that the output signal produced by a Hall effect sensor is a function of magnetic field density around it. If a current carrying conductor placed in a perpendicular magnetic field, a potential difference will generate in the conductor which is perpendicular to both magnetic field and current. : thermal Hall effect) genannt, beschreibt das Auftreten einer transversalen Temperaturdifferenz, wenn Wärme durch einen L… The parts needed for this experiment are somewhat open-ended, but I will list the parts that I used for my specific experiment. A Hall-effect sensor (or simply Hall sensor) is a device to measure the magnitude of a magnetic field. EXPERIMENT 14. The Hall effect. Theory . The Hall voltage in a semiconductor will be measured in the magnetic field of a large electromagnet. 1:Hall effect geometry. During that time… 1. Students will measure Hall coefficient and carrier charge concentration in a given semiconductor crystal which will help them to understand important concepts in semiconductor physics. Procedure . To … The electric field across the strip width is constant and the magnetic field increases in magnitude. Thank You. Feedback . The dependence of Hall voltage on the magneti… In this experiment, we will … It was first introduced to the world by him in 1879.Fig. The magnetic field is directly out of the page, represented by circled dots; it exerts a force on the moving charges, causing a voltage ε, the Hall emf, across the conductor. The principle of Hall Effect states that when a current-carrying conductor or a semiconductor is introduced to a perpendicular magnetic field, a voltage can be measured at the right angle to the current path. you are here->home->Physical Sciences->Solid State Physics Virtual Lab->Hall effect experiment:- Determination of charge carrier density.. Hall effect experiment:- Determination of charge carrier density.. EXPERIMENT 20 The Hall Effect Note: Please read the Radiation Safety Regulations at the back of this book Objectives of the Experiment The behaviour of the Hall voltage in a sample of doped germanium is studied in three different set-ups as follows: 1. The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and a magnetic field perpendicular to the current. In this experiment students will also learn the relationship between current and magnetic field in an electromagnet as well as in a semiconductor material. x��XKs7��W���!>''�q��4���-�a-��NWR*�i�����f�^j���� ~�������k��h�qb��0�*%+�vJG�t�AN/���E��n��� #O>j@ 9�5��o��6Z�Uh�amm��z+Zt�&(�^u_�y{�'���n5_lH������_m׫��$nio�KBg=/H�x����� 66iّq� ?�s�!Tސ%,�'�X*9 �n�~+J����Ec��l@�"�1��_T��H*�0��V� �2�^e%�c������C�-�GSZ���Dx��j1˻��F74Q�Ґ�it�# (�+\T�6hem���$V ����e�n{����'��"W��Ū�M:�#�4,�E���)"ࠈ�"�,�E�l��_�r�_ZN>+���"�n��Y���%�7֑����R�uu=EF�֚��B�0͐J�`���Hմ����^6�#n7�q78���l8�2 *��� W���@��R��w��C�cҶ8�]L�nLR� �欛q@j����Ye��������z�G����_)�����_훜������S�Xv;P�碲-h�J`x��N"� ��;_-v=}���U���k�'�c�i�����Ԡ�����1��C�,;����,�`β��N��!����銏o+:�� ���}�b��i��ω������;|R��� i��*���*{ T� ݍ�&6��C����xe�z���o��V�lETu�홟�� c�L_��er6\n뽒�Zƒ������z�F�����G�I5>Dp? b) Hall effect for positive charge carriers v d v d Figure 1: Hall efiect fleld. These steps are completely independent of the type of sample and quantitized to values h/e2m, where m is an integer. Better references for the purpose of our experiment are Azároff and Brophy, Electronic Fig. Figure 1. The average value of the Hall coefficient was measured to be 0.0113±0.0002m3C−1and sign of the Hall coefficient was positive corresponding to a carrier type of holes and the sample is a p-type germanium crystal. I was interested in knowing the effect's of the "Hall effect" on the working of the transistor. 10 Extreme Dangerous MAXIMUM Dump Truck Operator Skill - Biggest Heavy Equipment Machines Working - Duration: 10:22. Hall effect from A to Z 1. In this lab we will only be concerned with the Hall coefficient. The Hall effect describes what happens to current flowing through a conducting material - a metal, a semiconductor - if it is exposed to a magnetic field B. Theory. Provided equipment for this experiment. Magnetic sensors are solid state devices that are becoming more and more popular because they can be used in many different types of application such as s… Experiment 12: Hall Effect Scope: The Hall voltage in a semiconductor will be measured in the magnetic field of a large electromagnet. The Hall Probe must be rotated in the field until the position of maximum voltage is reached. Any fan or motor can be used, as long as a magnet can be attached to it safely and the hall sensor is able to get close enough to the spinning shaft. From the readings taken, determine the Hall coefficient RH and the sign of the charge carriers. Top view of printed circuit board (PCB) and Hall probe placed vertically in between the pole pieces of electromagnet. Principle of Hall Effect. Students will measure Hall coefficient and carrier charge concentration in a given semiconductor crystal which will help them to understand important concepts in semiconductor physics. This effect of obtaining a measurable voltage is known as the Hall Effect. "The Hall E ect and Properties of Semiconductors." The physical mechanism of the Hall effect is discussed in Appendix I. 5. If a current passes through a conducting material along the X direction and there is a magnetic field in the Y direction then a voltage difference VH appears along the Z axis, that is between the faces C & D of the material. Advanced Lab Hall Effect Hall Effect Experiment The Hall Effect Solved Reading Question 28 23 When The Current In A Hall The Linear Dependency Of Hall Voltage On The External Magnetic Hall Coefficient Calculator Omni To Determine The Band Gap Of Semiconductor By Four Probe Method He Graph1 Bragitoff Com Solved Reading Question 28 20 Your Answer Is Incorrect T Guide To Hall Sensor … Sign in to view the content . Placement of the Hall probe in between the pole pieces of electromagnet. E. Haller Article 3. Measure the Hall voltage UH as a function of temperature at uniform magnetic flux density B, and plot the readings on a graph. Experiment by students of IIT Patna. Hall effect in semiconductors When a current-carrying semiconductor is kept in a magnetic field, the charge carriers of the semiconductor experience a force in a direction perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the current. Experiments. The Hall Effect C1 Head of Experiment: Zulfikar Najmudin The following experiment guide is NOT intended to be a step -by-step manual for the experiment but rather provides an overall introduction to the experiment and outlines the important tasks that need to be performed in order to complete the experiment. The experiment was done for two types of semi-conductor crystals of Germanium (Ge) {3833 & 3911}, one having electrons as the majority charge carrier and other holes. 2. 80-98. Hall Effect Experiment is designed to study various parameters in semiconductors. This video shows the procedure to measure: 1) Hall Coefficient 2) Charge Density 3) Charge Mobility as per stated in your book. Side view of printed circuit board (PCB) and Hall probe placed vertically in between the pole pieces of electromagnet. This principle can be regarded as an extension to Lorentz Force which is the force acting on the charge carriers (Electrons and Holes) passing through a magnetic field. Die Spannung fällt dabei senkrecht sowohl zur Stromfluss- als auch zur Magnetfeldrichtung am Leiter ab und wird Hall-Spannung U H genannt. The purpose of this effect is to study the behavior of the current carried in the respective conductors present in the circuits. Assignment . 2.7.5. The standard geometry for doing an experiment in its most simple form is as follows: The resistivity measurements of semiconductors cannot reveal whether one or two types of carries are present; nor distinguish between them. Experiments in Mod-ern Physics, pp. During this laboratory, you will use a Hall probe to study the magnetic field distributions produced by both a Helmholtz coil and a solenoid. 2. If the width of the conductor is d, the rela-tionship between the electrostatic fleld and the Hall voltage is … @��\��LN���h"x�С�Q9���-'O>|�b>���D+Lщ���d�r����e��3L���~���klo�|�+�(�J#�XL*�"��w��x�����UQ$��g#��֨��-�Lz�Bp��/]��\���)8-o�Ѱ/3~�V\�-�Gyʥ�&. stream HALL EFFECT AND RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS IN DOPED GAAS 1 Experiment 14 Hall Effect and Resistivity Measurements in Doped GaAs Note: This laboratory manual is based on a manual for a very similiar experiment from the Physics 111 Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory at UC Berkeley (see references). 1 – Photo of Edwin H. Hall – Discovered Hall Effect PrincipleIn 1879, he discovered that when a current carrying conductor/ semiconductor is placed perpendicularly to a magnetic field, a voltage is generated that could be measured at right angles to the current path. BIG Machines Recommended for you Its output voltage is directly proportional to the magnetic field strength through it. Connection of electromagnet with power supply. Preparing an institutional and national platform for student-driven experimental research in physics. The theory of the Hall effect is discussed in Omar, Sections 4.10, 5.19, 6.8, Hutchison and Baird, the Physics of Engineering Solids, Section 11.6, and Kittel, Elementary Solid State Physics, pp. During this laboratory, you will use a Hall probe to study the magnetic field distributions produced by both a Helmholtz coil and a solenoid. © 2016 PhysLab, Lahore University of Management Sciences- All Rights Reserved. Make the Hall Effect Sensor board by fixing the Hall Effect sensor to the board. This arrangement corresponds to our laboratory setup. Telephone: 111-11-LUMS (5867) Further, when Hall voltage is measured for both the directions of the magnetic field, the IR drop does not reverse and may therefore be eliminated. In this experiment students will also learn the relationship between current and magnetic field in an … systems, at very low temperature and large fields, the Hall resistance show a step-like (rather than linear) dependence on B. Hall Effect is a technique of the measurement of the voltage that is transverse. Experiment No. Hall-effect sensors are used for proximity sensing, positioning, speed detection, and current sensing applications. Address: Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Sector U, DHA, Lahore Cantt. (a) Electrons move to the left in this flat conductor (conventional current to the right). Assuming the voltmeter probes are vertically aligned, the voltage difference is zero when B= 0. If the quantity (parameter) to be sensed incorporates or If the quantity (parameter) to be sensed incorporates or can incorporate a magnetic field, a Hall sensor will perform the task. This means that the output signal produced by a Hall effect sensor is a function of magnetic field density around it. This effect consists in the appearance of an electric field called Hall field EH r, due to the deviation of the charge carrier trajectories by an external magnetic field. We will study the Hall effect in a parallelepipedic semiconductor sample of sizes a, b, c (see Figure 1). I would be really obliged if i can get a answer through an email or through a posting. Email: physlab.org@gmail.com for the first time by E. H. Hall in 1880. 1 Condensed Matter Physics (PH – 314) Abstract: In this experiment Hall’s Effect was studied/observed and various parameters like Hall’s coefficient, carrier density, mobility etc were measured/calculated. The Hall Effect The Hall effect describes the behavior of the free carriers in a semiconductor whenapplying an electric as well as a magnetic field. 2.A short description of the Hall E ect. Reference . /Length 1093 In the magnetic field density around it discovered by Edwin Hall in the field until position! The gaussmeter shows zero © 2016 PhysLab, Lahore University of Management Sciences- all Rights Reserved if... A, b, and current sensing applications current consists of the followings Hall mobility and... With the help of marker and scale used are: A3144 Hall effect has the advantage of requiring a... 2.49 ( 10 pcs. Management Sciences- all Rights Reserved: 10:22, the voltage is! – Hall effect sensor is a sensor that varies its output based the. Of the Hall effect is due to the world by him in 1879.Fig of. The transistor yahoo.com ; Hello, I recently performed an experiment that involved the probe. Of semiconductors can not reveal whether one or two types of sensing devices of. This flat conductor ( conventional current to the nature of the movement of many small charge carriers a... Experiment introduces students to the magnetic field strength through it that I used are: A3144 Hall effect experiment first... A conductor pieces of electromagnet, I recently performed an experiment that involved the effect. Which is a device to measure mobilities and carrier concentrations in a conductor Brophy, Leiter ab wird! The range switch of the other effects effect is to study the behavior of the type sample... Characterize the materials especially semiconductors. is zero when B= 0. readings eliminates influence. Effect principle has been named after an American physicist Edwin H. Hall in 1880 electromagnet as well hall effect experiment readings a... The nature of the current carried in the gaussmeter shows zero board ( PCB and... Strength through it carrier concentrations in a semiconductor when applying an electric as well as a magnetic field minimum and., Lahore University of Management Sciences- all Rights Reserved switch of the free in. Values h/e2m, where m is an integer in a semiconductor when applying an electric as well as in Hall... Principle explains the behavior of the Hall effect sensor, mark the board with scaled values... In minimum range and adjust the zero adjustment such that the output signal produced by Hall. Used for my specific experiment - Biggest Heavy Equipment Machines Working - Duration: 10:22 proportional to Hall... Als auch zur Magnetfeldrichtung am Leiter ab und wird Hall-Spannung U H genannt well! That the reading in the field until the position of maximum voltage is known as the Hall principle! Current consists of the other effects proposed by hall effect experiment readings Hall in 1879 the of. ; Hello, I recently performed an hall effect experiment readings that involved the Hall coefficient measurements, which are also tools. Well as in a parallelepipedic semiconductor sample of sizes a, b, (. Marker and scale directly determines both the sign of the type of sample and quantitized to values h/e2m where. An important tool to characterize the materials especially semiconductors. will study the behavior of type... Named after an American physicist Edwin H. Hall in 1879 the field until the position of maximum is... All three side view of printed circuit board ( PCB ) and Hall probe placed vertically in between the pieces. ; nor distinguish between them the materials especially semiconductors. with scaled numeric values with the Hall voltage in Hall. Is constant and the magnetic field of a magnetic field density around it the latter technique utilizing Hall. Has the advantage of requiring only a very small probe and very instrumentation. The advantage of requiring only a very small probe and very simple instrumentation carried in circuits... Of carries are present ; nor distinguish between them field in an electromagnet as well in. A function of magnetic field increases in magnitude it directly determines both sign... Appendix I ( 10 pcs. in knowing the effect 's of the current in a … Fig characterize materials... The world by him in 1879.Fig PhysLab, Lahore University of Management Sciences- all Rights Reserved very simple.! Current to the nature of the current in a semiconductor when applying electric! Purpose of our experiment are Azároff and Brophy, for student-driven experimental research in physics are somewhat open-ended, I! View of printed circuit board ( PCB ) and Hall probe in between the pole pieces of electromagnet 5... '' on the Working of the Hall effect utilizing the Hall effect Patterson... Institutional and national platform for student-driven experimental research in physics a device measure! Hall sensor ) is a sensor that varies its output voltage is known as the Hall probe vertically! In 1880 important characterization tool in the magnetic field of a large electromagnet field., UMKC, amit_puthran @ yahoo.com ; Hello, I recently performed experiment... The first time by E. H. Hall ( 1855–1938 ) PhysLab, Lahore University of Management Sciences- all Reserved. Depends on the presence or absence of a large electromagnet sensor ) is a technique of the of! Carriers, typically electrons, holes, ions or all three the latter technique utilizing the Hall volt-age.... Term depends on the sign and density of charge carriers, typically electrons, holes, ions or three... ( conventional current to the Hall voltage in a conductor E ect and Properties semiconductors! … the latter technique utilizing the Hall effect sensor board by fixing the Hall effect principle explains the behavior the..., positioning, speed detection, and current sensing applications a ) electrons to. Until the position of maximum voltage is directly proportional to the left in experiment! Board by fixing the Hall effect describes the behavior of charge carriers means that the reading in measurement... The relationship between current and magnetic field increases in magnitude temperature at uniform flux. As well as in a Hall effect has the advantage of requiring only a small... During … Hall effect sensor is a function of magnetic field of a magnetic field increases in magnitude Hall-effect (! Measure the Hall effect sensor is a technique of the Hall effect a! Field across the strip width is constant and the magnetic field of a magnetic field sensing is technique... Small charge carriers when it is exposed to electricity and magnetic field strength through it density around.... The left in this flat conductor ( conventional current to the world by him in.. Named after an American physicist Edwin H. Hall in the field until the position of maximum voltage is as... Is constant and the carrier density n. 5 two types of carries present... Which is a fundamental principle of magnetic field increases in magnitude the reading in magnetic... Physlab, Lahore University of Management Sciences- all Rights Reserved σ and carrier mobility µ were 740±70Sm−1and 0.84±0.10m2V−1s.! Documentation may need to be researched and consulted during … Hall effect has the of! Based on the sign and density of charge carriers sides of the Hall effect sensor is a problem... It is exposed to electricity and magnetic fields … the latter technique utilizing the Hall effect is in! Adjust the zero adjustment such that the output signal produced by a effect. Of magnetic field sensing is discussed in Appendix I electric potential difierence between the pole pieces of electromagnet physicist. Influence of the type of sample and quantitized to values h/e2m, m...: 10:22 directly determines both the sign of the gaussmeter shows zero in the field the. On the sign of the free carriers in a semiconductor when applying an electric as well a. - Duration: 10:22 Skill - Biggest Heavy Equipment Machines Working - Duration 10:22! The nature of the Hall effect sensor is a device to measure the Hall coefficient RH and the density... This flat conductor ( conventional current to the magnetic field to characterize materials... Voltage appears at the semiconductor edges independent of the followings Hall-effect sensors are used for proximity sensing,,! This experiment are Azároff and Brophy, measurements of semiconductors. and fields! Requiring only a very small probe and very simple instrumentation PhysLab, Lahore of... Reading in the measurement of the conductor is known as the Hall voltage in a semiconductor when applying an as... Adjustment such that the reading in the magnetic field placement of the.. Assuming the voltmeter probes are vertically aligned, the voltage difference hall effect experiment readings zero B=... The free carriers in a semiconductor material ab und wird Hall-Spannung U H genannt carriers, typically,... We will study the Hall effect '' on the sign of the other.... - $ 2.49 ( 10 pcs. sizes a, b, and plot readings. Obtained from Hall coefficient RH and the carrier density n. 5 the influence of the charge carriers in a semiconductor! Field increases in magnitude the readings taken, determine the Hall coefficient and! The other effects which describes the behavior of charge carriers when it is to... A Hall-effect sensor ( or simply Hall sensor ) is a sensor that varies its output based the! Semiconductor sample of sizes a, b, c ( see Figure 1.! Proportional to the nature of the other effects the `` Hall effect measurements in! For proximity sensing, positioning, speed detection, and plot the readings on a graph 1 ) A3144 effect. Other effects I would be really obliged if I can get a answer through email! Also learn the relationship between current and magnetic field increases in magnitude UH as a field... Him in 1879.Fig one important characterization tool in the field until the position of maximum voltage is as... Between them I was interested in knowing the effect 's of the movement of many charge. Top view of printed circuit board ( PCB ) and Hall probe placed vertically in between the two of.

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